Welcome! Whether you are familiar with my scholarly work on the history and theology of early Christianity or with my efforts in the area of Christian education, I hope this site will encourage you to join me in mining the riches of patristic theology for academy and church alike.


The Trinitarian Testimony of the Spirit: Prosopological Exegesis and the Development of Pre-Nicene Pneumatology (VCSup 147; Brill, 2018)

“Extraordinary…one of those rare breakthrough books that will reshape both historical and systematic theology. Read it.”

—Matthew W. Bates, Quincy University, OnScript

untitledIn The Trinitarian Testimony of the Spirit, Kyle R. Hughes offers a new approach to the development of early Christian pneumatology by focusing on how Justin, Irenaeus, and Tertullian linked the Holy Spirit with testimony to the deity and lordship of the Father and the Son. Drawing extensively on recent studies of prosopological exegesis and divine testimony in the ancient world, Hughes demonstrates how these three pre-Nicene Christian writers utilized Scripture and the conventions of ancient rhetoric and exegesis to formulate a highly innovative approach to the Holy Spirit that would contribute to the identification of the Spirit as the third person of the Trinity.

See further Brill’s page on the book here.




Kyle R. Hughes (PhD, Radboud University Nijmegen) is a scholar-pastor-teacher specializing in the study of early Christianity and working to bring out the riches of patristic theology for the modern church and for Christian schools. He is the author of The Trinitarian Testimony of the Spirit: Prosopological Exegesis and the Development of Pre-Nicene Pneumatology (VCSup 147; Leiden: Brill, 2018), as well as several peer-reviewed journal articles, book reviews, and dictionary entries; he is also a frequent presenter at the Society of Biblical Literature Annual and International Meetings. Kyle’s primary theological interests include the development of the doctrine of the Holy Spirit, spiritual formation in the Anglican tradition, and Christian teaching and learning. Kyle and his wife Karisa live in Smyrna, Georgia, where he serves as History Department Chair at Whitefield Academy. In 2019, he was ordained to the diaconate in the Anglican Church in North America.


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As for why this site is sub-titled “Early Christian Archives,” the name is taken from a famous passage in Ignatius of Antioch’s letter to the Philadelphians, where he recounts the following exchange with some opponents: “For I heard some people saying, ‘If I do not find it in the archives [τοῖς ἀρχειοῖς] I do not believe it in the gospel.’ And when I said to them, ‘It is written,’ they answered me, ‘That is the point at issue.’ But to me the archives [τὰ ἀρχεῖα] are Jesus Christ, the inviolable archives [τὰ ἀρχεῖα] are his cross and death and his resurrection and the faith that is through him” (Ign. Phil. 8.2). Most scholars understand the first reference to “the archives” to refer to the Hebrew (or Old Testament) Scriptures. As such, this passage provides a glimpse into early Christian attempts to make sense of the sacred texts of Judaism in light of the Christ event, and reflects this site’s interest in early Christian hermeneutics, and how the first Christians read, wrote, and interpreted Scriptural texts.